Race/ethnicity and the factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: a meta-analysis.


The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine racial/ethnic differences in the factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The total number of participants (N) in the assessed studies (k) varied according to whether the original study had used either Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA; N = 19,206, k = 13) or Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA; N = 65,554, k = 16). The factor structures of the CES-D were compared across five racial/ethnic groups: African Americans, American Indians, Asians, Whites, and Hispanics. Meta-analysis results suggest that the structure of the CES-D observed in EFAs varied substantially between racial/ethnic groups, whereas the CFA-assessed structure of the CES-D was mostly consistent between racial/ethnic groups. The meta-analysis of EFA studies did not consistently replicate the original four-factor structure reported by Radloff (1977), but the meta-analysis of CFA studies replicated the original four-factor structure in four of the five racial/ethnic groups. Overall, the present meta-analysis found strong evidence that the original four-factor structure may not be the best fit for all racial/ethnic groups. Thus, in clinical settings where the CES-D is used as a tool to screen for depression, clinicians and researchers should recognize the risk that symptoms of depression may be presented differently by members of different racial/ethnic groups.

Location Description: 

Alabama AL