Extending the public health impact of screening for diabetes in high-risk populations: opportunities in American Indian communities.
OBJECTIVE: To assess trends in diabetes screening among American Indian adults and identify opportunities to extend blood glucose screening to those at risk for undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. METHODS: In 1999, 2001, and 2003, approximately 1,000 American Indian adults aged 18 years and older living on or near the seven reservations in Montana were interviewed through telephone surveys. RESULTS: Of respondents without diagnosed diabetes, the proportion who recalled blood glucose screening for diabetes within the past 3 years increased from 68 percent in 1999 to 78 percent in 2003. Between 1999 and 2003, screening increased among men (64%-75%), women (71%-80%), those aged 18-44 years (64%-72%), and those aged 45 years and older (76%-84%). Factors independently associated with screening included age more than 45 years, family history of diabetes, and a history of high cholesterol. Current smokers were less likely to report screening compared to nonsmokers. Gender, obesity, and a history of high blood pressure were not associated with screening. CONCLUSIONS: Although self-reported diabetes screening increased over a 5-year period among Indians in Montana, additional groups who could benefit from screening include younger and obese individuals, and those with hypertension.